South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) University » South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) University - SASSI SASSI Tue, 27 Oct 2015 06:08:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Indo-US climate and Clean Energy Cooperation Fri, 27 Feb 2015 09:55:59 +0000 By: Fakhar Jalil

Energy is the basic requirement for any countrys economic growth, development and for increasing the quality of life. In the republic of India around 600 million Indians do not have access to electricity and about 700 million Indian use bio mass as their primary energy resource for cooking.With 1.2 billion people, India desperately needs energy to fuel its economic growth. Its demand for energy is expected to grow by 95 percent by 2030. India does not possess sufficient energy resources to cater to either current or future requirement. During 2029 – 2030 at 6 per cent GDP growth the Indian energy demand will peak at approximately 255,000 MW and 295,000 MW at 9 percent growth. India will, therefore, remain a net energy importer for the foreseeable future. While coal remains Indias main energy source also there will be a growing use of gas.

To eradicate poverty, India requires sustained economic growth at greater than eight per cent a year over the next twenty-five years, with development distributed equally. To sustain this growth, it requires access to guaranteed supplies of energy. India is simultaneously coming under increased international pressure to better control its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mainly produced by the burning of fossil fuels. India must effectively separate its economic growth from fossil fuel demand while still ensuring access to sufficient energy, and adhering to enhanced ecological restrictions.

With above mentioned eye opening figures and tremendous level of energy demand it is evident that India requires great support of energy rich countries to help her meets its energy requirements. The recent visit of President of United States of America, Barack Obama to India during 25- 27 January 2015 is one step in the direction of seeking energy cooperation from United States. According the official document released by the white house with the title of Shared Effort; Progress for all on the Obamas visit to India both the countries have agreed upon cooperating in the fields of Climate and Clean Energy.

As mentioned in the official statement India intends increases her share of renewable energy consistent with its intended goal to increase its solar capacity to 100GW by 2022. India already has the worlds largest Solar Park located on 2,000 hectares of land at Charanka village in the State of Gujrat which produces 600 MW of solar power. This solar park is three times larger than the Chinese Golmud Solar Park, which held the record since it was finished in October 2011 with a total capacity of 200 MW.

The aim of India according its green goals within 2020 is that 15% of Indias total energy consumption should come from renewable sources of energy which is currently at 6%. Another solar power project is Dhursar concentrated solar power (CSP) project in the state of Rajahstan India. The concentrated solar power (CSP) plant is expected to be the largest solar thermal power plant in Asia and the largest in the world using the linear Fresnel reflective technology. The concentrated solar power plant is part of the first phase of the ambitious Indian program, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, which aims to set up 22,000 MW of solar power capacity by 2022. And it will offset over 2.1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions over a period of 10 years.

The United States has emphasized on India that it reduces its carbon emission by using alternate sources of energy. The Indian efforts to utilize solar energy are clearly the step towards employment of renewable energy. For the said purpose both India and USA have a robust program of cooperation which is called Partnership to Advance Clean Energy also known as (PACE). Both the countries have jointly funded the $125 million program for the advance clean energy and Research (PACE-R) in the fields of research in solar energy, advanced bio-fuels, building energy efficiency and launching new tracks on smart grid and grid storage technology.

India having the second largest population in the world has high impacts on the climate and carbon emissions. In the Obamas recent visit he was successful in convincing the Indian prime minister to involve the country in the upcoming Paris Agreement for Climate Change Which is a new agreement that will be adopted in 2015, at the Paris climate conference, and implemented from 2020. It will take the form of a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force, and will be applicable to all Parties. It is being negotiated through a process known as the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action.

The United States will aid India with $1 billion to finance its renewable energy research but in return India has agreed to participate in dialogue on Hydrofluoric Carbons HFCs at the UN Montreal Protocol on substance that aims to reduce consumption and production of HFCs. India in past has refused to participate in any such negotiations claiming that other sources of renewable energy are too expensive and owned by corporate giants which are not easily accessible to developing countries. It is interesting to note that Indias change in stance on HFCs will be greatly affecting its coolant industry of refrigeration and air conditioning which is estimated over Rs. 15000 crores.

The Indo-US cooperation in energy and climate has number of implications for Pakistan. Energy shortages are driving Pakistanis to an edge and are exacerbating their economic insecurities as well. The average demand is 17,000MW and the shortfall is between 4,000 and 5,000MW. In the next 10 years, peak electricity demand is expected to rise by four to five per cent, which is roughly 1,500MW. In the times of severe energy crisis Pakistan can absolutely use assistance from its supposedly ally United States, in the field of renewable and clean energy. Investments by USA in solar energy production in Pakistan have greater potential equally to that of India. Americas discriminatory attitude towards Pakistan in the energy sector could be a great setback for countrys economic growth as well as it will create a regional imbalance between two nuclear powers of south Asia that happen to be hostile towards each other, to empower one with all possible aid and ignore other regardless of it being in the worst energy crisis till date is quite an unhealthy practice for the regional peace, stability and balance of power. It aims to create a regional hegemony with a so called regional major power that is if not completely then at least adequately self sufficient in energy requirements. Such discriminatory cooperation will lead to anarchical region specifically and danger to international peace generally.


]]> 0
“Industry Summit IDEAS 2014” Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:41:56 +0000 The International Defence Exhibition and Seminar IDEAS is an absolute defence industry show and regions best platform for international defence system promotion and procurement. The chronicle of IDEAS series is a venture of Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Defence Production which is organized by Defence Export Promotion Organization DEPO under the support of Pakistan Armed Forces.

SASSI is the official organizers for the industry summit to be held on December 2,3 and 4, 2014. The industry summit will l be looking at the possibilities at collaborating defence cooperation between Pakistan and international partners.


IDEAS is a biennially held defence exhibition, started from the year 2000. Over the years, it has grown very well in its reach, participation and international attendance to a level that is second to none. IDEAS exhibits a wide variety of defence systems, ranging from equipment used in the third world countries to the most sophisticated technology from the west and showcases technology of tomorrow and innovations in defence with more than 2000 weapon systems and items of equipment on display.

The event provides a perfect interactive platform for the defence forces to access the best products and technologies to cater for their respective defence related requirements. It also brings together international manufacturers and suppliers of products and services to explore the opportunities for cooperation in the field of defence production through joint ventures, outsourcing and collaboration.


]]> 0
WHY PAKISTAN Sun, 24 Aug 2014 06:09:36 +0000 The changing international security milieu has brought governments and militaries closer together to share their ideas and plans to meet their requirements to maintain regional and global peace.

The fluid geopolitical climate resulting from the rapid changes in the global security situation in recent years has forced many governments to take a fresh look at their national security mechanisms. In a bid to effectively meet the training & simulation, arms ammunition, internal security equipment, land based platforms, army participation in homeland security, military vehicles, aircraft drones UAV new challenges posed by the transformed regional and global security dynamics, many countries have started to make sizable budgetary allocations for modernization and up gradation programmers of their armed forces. At present, structural and technological improvements dominate the planning of most military and law enforcement agencies of the world.

The most volatile geopolitical regions in Asia, have now become the largest markets for defence products. The changing international security milieu has brought governments and militaries closer together to share their ideas and plans to meet their requirements to maintain regional and global peace. To cope with the challenges in an economically affordable manner, outsourcing, joint ventures and technological collaborations play a significant role.

Pakistans ever growing defence industry is in quest for seeking international alliances to meet the requirements of its armed forces and growing needs of the regional defence forces. Pakistans own defence products present a perfect mix of indigenous and foreign technologies thus offering an ideal platform for defence collaboration.

The International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS), showcases a wide variety of technology, ranging from equipment used in the third world countries to the most sophisticated systems from the West. Besides, it also presents an ideal opportunity to the defence manufacturers for entering into collaboration and joint ventures with Pakistan or other prospective international partners.


]]> 0
Marshal Plan that Built Europe, could not build Afghanistan? Tue, 05 Aug 2014 09:59:03 +0000 By: Tahir Nazir

In the coming months and years, Afghanistan will likely to go under a mega transition in all spheres i.e. political, security and economic in the midst of growing Taliban threats to existing state structure.

U.S combat forces will leave Afghanistan at the end of this year while leaving behind 9800 numbers in Afghanistan. But the stay of these forces is linked to the signing of bilateral security agreement (BSA) between the U.S and the Afghanistan. Incumbent Afghanistans President, Hamid Karzai refused to sign the BSA and left this issue to the future Afghan President.

With the recent Presidential election in Afghanistan, there is a hope that the next president will sign the BSA and it will enable U.S to station its forces in Afghanistan after 2014. By the end of 2015, the US forces would be going to reduce its forces to around 4900 in and in the following years it will reduced to small contingent to protect US embassy and its installations.

Post 2014, the main task of US and NATO forces will be to train, advice and assist Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and a separate group of Special Operations forces to continue counterterrorism missions against the remnants of al-Qaeda. It will shift the onus on the ANSF to take the lead role in maintaining the law and order of the country and to undertake, effective counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency operations against the Taliban and other insurgent groups operating in Afghanistan.

But the recently published report by the US Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR), have painted altogether different rather bleak picture of future of Afghanistan in the context of post-2014.

According to report, Afghanistan became the largest recipient country of U.S aid by surpassing the US Marshal Plan that delivered billions of dollars between 1948 and 1952 to help 16 European countries to recover in the aftermath of World War II.

Till this date U.S spent $104 Billion from 2002 and 2014 on Afghanistans reconstruction and development that includes the Afghan National Security Forces: Afghan Army (ANA), Afghan National Police (ANP) and Afghan Air force (AAF).

US Marshall Plan delivered about $13.3 billion (in inflation-adjusted terms, today it is equal to $103.4 billion) aid to European countries to stand on their feet But that aid did not include the cost of raising their armies, like Afghanistan, where US spent almost $62 billion in training, equipping and maintaining Afghan national security forces.

According to U.S top troops commander, General Joseph F. Dunford, I a m not confident that if we were to leave at the end of 2014, that those forces (ANSF) would be sustainable. There are some significant capability gaps that have to be addressed in order for the Afghans to be able to do things that we have heretofore been doing for them.

And these apprehensions haves also expressed by Afghan themselves and the regional countries about the condition and capacity of Afghan National Army (ANA) , as they are already at a deplorable condition and could become less effective in withstanding the challenges of security after the withdrawal of foreign forces from Afghanistan.

According to the report, the ANSF current size is 352,000 that are expected to be reduced to 228,500 by 2017 and it would need $4.1 billion annually to sustain their presence but according to Centre for Naval Analyses (CNA), in the likely 2015 2018 security environments, the ANSF will require a total security force of about 373,400 personnel.

U.S and the NATO countries are feeling the double jeopardy, on one hand, cutting the size of ANSF would risk the instability in Afghanistan in post 2014 and on the other, increasing the troops numbers will raise the cost around $5 to 6 billion per year.

In the upcoming NATO Summit, United States and NATO countries will have to make tough choices with regards to Afghanistan in the midst of growing austerity.

It is expected that in post 2014 scenario, there would be instability in Afghanistan coupled with the huge unemployment, inflation and severe economic crunch, as the current Afghan economy is based upon war (economy) and the massive foreign financial support.

Gradual draw down of foreign forces and other foreign personnel from Afghanistan will certainly dry the financial aid and it would severely weaken the authority of central government and affect the overall political stability in the country.

And to validate the above mentioned point, the John F. Sopko, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, gave an example of an Afghan Local Police unit that cut the power lines from Kabul to eastern Laghman and Nangahar Provinces in retaliation for not being paid for three months.

From this little example, one can imagine, what could happen, if the Afghan government cannot meet payrolls of its servicemen.

Given the fact that Afghanistan largely dependent upon the US and foreign donors and having a low revenue roughly $2 billion (2013), on the contrary, Afghanistan government has unveiled a far larger budget about $7.6 billion, with donor grants expected to fund about $4.8 billion, or still more than 60% of the total.

This report comes at a critical juncture when Afghanistan is facing growing Talibans insurgency with the drawdown of foreign forces, runoff between the two presidential candidates: Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, hectic task of audit of 8.1 million ballots amid growing concerns of a civil war in Afghanistan if U.S backed unity government recipe fails to deliver substantive outcomes.

Also, we should keep in mind that European countries took hundred years to evolve and build their institutions out of complex federal structure. Given Afghanistans political and security situation, it will take little longer to achieve those objectives.

The future of peace and stability in Afghanistan is linked to the progress on three fronts i.e. Political, economic, security and that would be critical in determining the fate of Afghanistan in the years to come.


]]> 0
PALESTINE BLEEDS Mon, 04 Aug 2014 10:13:57 +0000

By Mateeah Aqeel

After so many protests and admonition all over, its now quite clear that the outrage wont end the war in Gaza. So what can be a feasible way to halt Israels military offensive. The most probable mode to discontinue this series of brutality is through internationally administered demilitarization process but the international community is not showing the expected response.

We condemn Israels brutality in Palestine but yes the international community has shown its lack of ability to shelter the poor and naive people who have lost their lives because of the violence of Israel in the Gaza crisis. This catastrophe if remains unpressurised might result into a religious massacre as the Muslim society will stand together to raise voice against the killings of innocent people. This massacre has caused the halt to international peace. Why this all is going on and no one is is rising voice to stop it? This is very simple that Israel understands that the international systems loop holes and it stays unpressurised to stop its offensive acts against civilians in Palestine.

Where stands the United Nations? The United Nations has failed to stop the violent attacks of Israel. The United Nations Security Council has called for an instant cease-fire in Gaza and has articulated solemn apprehension at the escalation of violence which was no less than just a formal condemnation of the aggression. The UNSC has also called for the protection of civilians under international humanitarian law. No international law allows the extra judicial killings of the civilians and these attacks clearly reflect the violation of human rights yet UN and other international bodies have remained unsuccessful to pressurize Israel to stop the military offensive acts.

The Muslim world has absolutely botched to even raise a voice or make at least a formal condemnation of aggression. Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) has remained very silent in reference to the Israeli belligerence on Palestine. Similarly Arab league has also remained quiet about the brutal Israeli aggression. It is now the time to acknowledge that the Muslim world must take into account the way to stop the ongoing aggression on Palestine permanently otherwise this brutality may result as a threat to international peace and security having regional as well as global insinuations.

The growing hostility is rapidly developing into a humanitarian crisis. Israels genocide in Palestine has set a worst example of brutality. The Israels aggression in Gaza has entered into the fourth week with a rapid increase in the death toll of the civilians. The Israeli assault instigated with drone strikes on Gaza and then shelling followed by small-arms fire. The Palestinian Health Ministry said more than 425 Palestinians have been killed, including 112 children, and 3,000 wounded since fighting began. The United Nations said about three-fourths of the Palestinian casualties have been civilians.

The Palestinian people are facing this brutality of Israel in the name of self defense as Israel claims that its three military men have been killed in the rocket attacks from Hamas which were directed towards the densely populated areas. According to the Israel claims, it ha started these attacks on Palestine in self defense but the truth is that these kinds of attacks are not new. Israels bloodshed against the Palestinian people is not a new phenomenon but it has been commencing war crimes against innocent civilians since years. This has caused the outrage in masses all over the globe resulting in protests to pressurize Israel to stop these attacks.

Pakistan calls for end to Israeli aggression, Gaza blockade. The most important requirement at this stage is to make Israel end its military offensive, declare an immediate and unconditional ceasefire and pull out of Gaza. The blockade of Gaza must be ended in order to allow access of any humanitarian assistance and that is why even in the UN Security Council and in the UN Human Rights Council, we call for humanitarian pauses, foreign Secretary Aizaz Ahmad Chaudhry said. Pakistan is actively engaged in making efforts to halt the Israeli aggression. As soon as the efforts are successful in halting Israeli military offensive, the doors will be open for collective efforts in terms of humanitarian aid for Gaza.


]]> 0
Press Release: Non Proliferation and Disarmament Challenges in Pakistan and The Region Held Mon, 16 Jun 2014 16:00:28 +0000 Roundtable on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Challenges for Pakistan and the Region held
Islamabad (June 16, 2014): Mr. Jaeck Bylical, EU principal advisor and special envoy for non-proliferation and disarmament has said that EU-Pakistan engagement plan is an effective instrument to counter the threat of nuclear proliferation and global challenges in this domain. He was addressing the roundtable table on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Challenges for Pakistan and the Region, organized by the South Asian Strategic Stability Institute, SASSI (University) .
Dr. Maria Sultan, Director General SASSI University, in her opening remarks, elaborated that Pakistan believes that Pakistan-European Union strategic dialogue will lead towards tangible and positive outcomes between Pakistan and EU.
Highlighting the importance of thebilateral process on this issue of non-proliferation, she stated that Pakistan faced serious security challenges and greatly values its nonproliferation commitments with ground realities.
She emphasized that the Indo-US nuclear deal has created serious security problems for the stability of the region. She was also of the view that EU has taken a very important stance in terms of placing restraints and limitations on access to the nuclear technology, adding the Indian exemption has created regional security imbalance. She also appreciated the EU mission in Pakistan for strengthening the bilateral relations.

Secretary Defense while speaking on the occasion stated that the increase in the Indian defense budget was equal to the entire

entire defense budget of Pakistan, highlighting that Indian Cold Start Doctrine (CSD) lowers the threshold and creates uncertain security measures, specifically for Pakistan. He further said that Pakistan continues to believe in credible minimum deterrence and engaging multilaterally on non-proliferation with the rest of the international community and Pakistan commitment to Nuclear security framework is a testament to this.
The roundtable was attended by a number of security experts and defense analysts.
For Video highlights please follow the link:



]]> 0
Defense Budget Fiscal year 2014-15 Wed, 11 Jun 2014 09:25:48 +0000 By Mateeah Aqeel

The budget of fiscal year 2013-2014 had been presented on June 2 nd , 2014 in which we can clearly see an increase in the defense budget of Pakistan. Defense budget for 2014-2015 has been raised to Rs700. 2 billion, fiscal year beginning on July 1, 2014, in comparison to the compared to the outgoing fiscal year when the budget allocated was with Rs 627.2 billion. The budget 2014-2015 has shown an increase of Rs 73 billion.

The increase in the defense budget is a positive sign seeing the security environment of the South Asian region, where Pakistan military’s expanses are the lowest in the region. In the changing security situation in the region, Pakistan has to face a number of issues at the national, regional and international level. We see that the draw down of NATO forces from Afghanistan is due by the end of 2014 and US has already given the strategy of Asia Pivot which shows that the security dynamics will shift towards balance of military power in the Asian region. The i mpact of US/NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan can be seen as both the stabilizing and destabilizing factors.

However, on the eastern border Pakistan has to confront India with its rapidly accelerative military strength and offensive military doctrines. The South Asian security is challenged because of the Indian Militarys Cold Start Doctrine that is aimed towards Pakistan. The doctrine was introduced by the Indian military in 2004 in order to modify its approach to war and fight short duration conflicts under the nuclear shadow.

Introduction of CSD in South Asia has managed to change the dynamics of the region making it even more destabilized than before. The threat of deterrence failure would increase if India operationalizes its Indian Military Cold Start Doctrine (CSD) as such an offensive doctrine against a nuclear weapon state will put the region into instability. The doctrine is based on the concept of pre-emptive strike and calls for rapid deployment of Integrated Battle Groups. India’s Cold Start Doctrine joint with massive militarization force has the capability to increase the level of an arms race, hence raising the level of minimum deterrence stability in the region. The introduction of the CSD would be followed by the Pakistani counter measures for strategic equivalence with India. So Pakistan needs to take into account the dynamic strategic scenario and their implications on Pakistan’s security situation.

Pakistan is facing problems both internally and externally. Internally Pakistan has to deal with the issue of insurgency and terrorism, whereas, at the external level Pakistan is facing issues both at the eastern and the north western border.

In last five years while the defense procural has been almost doubled from around 350 billion in 2009-10 to Rs700 billion this year. After 2013, Pakistan has increased its defense spending by 15 per cent. Seeing the changing international security environment it is essential for Pakistan to secure its territorial integrity, sovereignty both internally and externally. For this Pakistan definitely has to increase the defense budget due to changing national, regional and global security environment.


]]> 0
Visualizing Inexpensive Security Wed, 11 Jun 2014 09:18:43 +0000  By Ahad Tariq

Early this month, on June 3, 2014, Finance Minister Ishaq Dar proudly presented in Parliament the budget for the fiscal year 2014-2015. With no surprise for the economic analyst, an increase of Rs 73billion was announced in defense budget of the country locking it to Rs 700.2 billion compared the Rs 627.2 billion of the outgoing fiscal year’s defence budget. According to the budget document Rs 152.8billion of this total sum have been allocated for physical assets, Rs180.2 billion for operational expenses and Rs 293.5 billion for employees’ related expenses. In addition, military would be given 165 billion under the contingent liability and 185 billion under the coalition support fund.

Defense budget has continued to remain a sensitive and rather, controversial subject in the country. There have been loud calls from the opponents for the cut down and greater scrutiny of the spending. These opponents would always argue on how this amount could rather be used to combat domestic problems like unemployment, power shortages and health challenges. What they won’t tell you are the defense requirements in the backdrop of the threats that Pakistan faces, where there exists a huge disparity between threats and security.

Pakistan is facing multi-dimensional problems leaving the country with diverse, complicated and unanticipated security threats. Analyzing the situation at a broader level makes one acknowledge the threat lying in the balance of military power in Asia where all the countries are increasing their military capabilities. A chain reaction that starts from the concentration of American military forces in the region and the circle of alliance around China under the so-called ‘Asia Pivot’ strategy fuels the military competition in the region which drags in India and Pakistan subsequently.

In this backdrop, Pakistan faces a two front threat at the regional level. On the western side there is an unreliable and presumably unstable Afghanistan due to an anticipated civil war after the US and NATO withdrawal. The fact that destabilized Afghanistan can lead to serious security concerns for Pakistan cannot be overlooked. Whereas, on the east, India with its rapidly increasing military might, offensive doctrines like ‘CSD’ and a newly elected Right-Wing government poses the biggest threat to Pakistan. From 1998-2010, while comparing the defense budgets of Pakistan and India, we see that in the past 12 years Pakistan’s budget just rose from slightly below $5 billion to slightly above $5 billion. Contrary to which, India’s budget jacked up from $20 billion to $35 billion. In the fiscal year 2014-2015, India has proposed a 10% increase in its defense spending. India’s former defense minister Pallaniapan Chidambaram announced in parliament that the defense spending for 2014-2015 would be Rs 2.24 trillion. The budget proposals given by Chidambaram are interim and can be changed when the new elected government announces its budget. Although a further increase in the defense budget is expected under the BJP government.

Let us diagnose the subject at national level where Pakistan is being threatened by a number of internal security threats. Rising militancy and separatist movements pose a grim danger to Pakistan’s internal security and integrity. Pakistan has till now suffered the loss of more than 50,000 lives and economic losses of more than $100 billion.

Furthermore, the geo-political realities cannot be ignored too. It is crucial for Pakistan to ensure its security, safeguarding its territorial integrity and sovereignty. The budgetary allocations for defence have been kept lowest in the previous few years. However, the changed national, regional and global security environment was demanding an increase in the defense budget.


]]> 0
Defence Budget 2014-2015 Mon, 09 Jun 2014 10:27:20 +0000 Article by Ayesha Zaryab

Article by Shahzad Ali


]]> 0
International Conference on ” Deterrence and Emerging Dynamics in South Asia” Mon, 12 May 2014 06:29:06 +0000 to be held by South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) University on May 14-15, 2014

The tentative agenda of the conference is attached below

Two Day International Conference


Press Release


]]> 0